Atoms As Big As Mountains — Neutron Stars Explained

Neutron stars are among the most extreme things in our universe Similar to gigantic atomic nuclei, several kilometers in diameter, incredibly dense and violent. But how can such a thing can it exist? The life of a star is maintained by 2 forces. Its own gravity, and the pressure resulting from nuclear fusion. At the heart of the stars, hydrogen merges in helium. This hydrogen eventually runs out. If the star is massive enough, helium 'fuses' into carbon.

The heart of these imposing stars is separates in a layer, like an onion, as more atoms in addition dense accumulate in their center. Carbon fuses into neon, then into oxygen, then silicone. Finally reaching the iron, no longer able to merge, the reaction stops. The radiation pressure then drops quickly. The star is no longer stable, and if the mass of his heart exceeds 1.4 times the mass of the sun, a titanic collapse takes place. The ends of the star reach speeds of during 70,000 km / s rushing towards the center of the star.

Photo by Manouchehr Hejazi on Unsplash

Only the fundamental forces internal to the atom can fight gravitational crushing. 

The push back due to quantum mechanics electrons is exceeded, electrons and neutrons fuse in neutrons as tight as the atom of a nuclide. The outer layers of the star are catapulsed into space in a violent supernova. We now have a neutron star! Its mass is between 1 and 3 times that of the sun, but compressed into an object of 25km in diameter!And 500,000 times the mass of the Earth in this little ball, which is about the diameter of Manhattan. The density is so great that a cubic centimeter of a neutron star contains the same mass as an iron cube 700 meters aside. This comes down to around 1 billion ton, as massive as the mount Everest, for the volume of a sugar cube. But the gravity of such a star is impressive! By dropping an object 1m from its surface, it would reach the star in 1 microsecond, accelerating to 7.2 million km.s. The surface is very smooth, not the least bump beyond 5 millimeters, and a very fine plasma atmosphere.

The surface temperature is around 1 million Kelvin, compared to 5,800 Kelvin for our sun.

 And in the heart of this star, The crust is very rigid, presumably composed of an arrangement of iron atoms, embedded in an ocean of electrons. The closer we get, the more neutrons we see and the less protons we see until you reach an incredibly soup dense with indistinct neutrons. The hearts of neutron stars are very, very strange. We are not sure of their properties but we assume it it is "superfluid degenerate matter neutrons ", or some kind of super-dense quark, called "quark-gluon plasma". It makes no sense in life daily and cannot exist only in such extreme conditions. We can compare a neutron star to a huge core of an atomic nucleus.

But the big disparity is that the heart nuclei is maintained by force interaction, whereas for these stars is gravity. And if this was not extreme enough, Let's take a look at their other properties. Young neutron stars spin up to several rotations per second. And if a close star feeds a neutron star, the spin can go up to 100 rotation per second. Such as the object PSRJ1748-2446ad. It spins at around 252 million km / h. So fast, the star has a strange shape. These objects are called 'pulsars' because they emit powerful radio signals. The magnetic field of such a star is about 8 billion times greater to the Earth's magnetic field. So powerful that the atoms are compressed when they enter their area of ​​influence. I hope it's clear from now on. Neutron stars are extreme, but are also among the most peculiar of our universe. Maybe someday we'll send vessels to see more clearly! But let's keep our distance! Subtitles made by the community

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