Converting an Elephant into a rat – Interchanging The Size of animals

Let's reduce an elephant to the size of a mouse and enlarge a mouse to the size of an elephant because we want to see what's going on .At the beginning our little elephant will stagger and suddenly die. Our elephant is refrigerated and dies of cold in a few minutes .Our giant mouse when it looks really bad and ends up exploding by scattering his smoking entrails .

Is it possible to interchange sizes?

 Because of the sizes ,We are optimized to operate precisely at the size at which we live and we died in horrible conditions in any other environment ,But why exactly? Why is our mouse exploding? And could we do the same to our elephant if we tried to?

The basic structure:

Life on our planet is based on cells The cells can vary in size but these dimensions remain quite similar across the different species .A blue whale has no larger cells than a humming bird, just a lot more than it does. Cells have to do a lot to survive And they need energy to be able to do that. In order to obtain this energy, animal cells convert food and oxygen into usable chemical energy. This phenomenon appears in our mitochondria, the energy center of our cell. They are like little coal machines that spit out tiny ATP batteries, which the cell can use for almost anything it needs to do .

Like a machine, the mitochondrion heats up enormously while working. In human skin cells, they reach a temperature of 50 ° C. And some of our cells have over 2,000 mitochondria which radiate with their heat into the cell which radiates their heat into the cell. So being alive generates a lot of heat. The more cells you have, the more heat your body generates.

The problems of large size:

 If our bodies wouldn't have found ways to lose this heat, We would be cooked inside and dead But this is a problem for larger animals because of the way the body changes on a large scale. Animals have three properties that are important. 

Their length.
Their outer carcass or skin, and
Their inner like organs, bones and their dreams and hopes.
The trick that is hard to understand is this: Look, its interior is growing faster than its exterior Imagine a cube of flesh If you double the length of these sides, it surfaces and its double pitch volume. In fact, the surface is now 4 times the original surface and the volume of the cube, 8 times the original volume What is called the "scale effect" and it has been in nature for billions of years. So why is this a problem for large animals?

Because heat can only get rid of an object via its surface. So if we make our mouse as big as an elephant or 60 times its length, there is 3000 times more surface with which we lose heat But there are 21,600 times more volume, filled with billions and billions new hot mitochondria that produce more heat. With a lot more interior, but not so much skin, Our mouse dies very quickly.

How do large animals like elephants  they deal with heat?

 First, they have evolved and found a way to get rid of energy more easily, thanks to their enormous and flat ears which have more surface which allows a dissipation of heat. But it's not enough. The solution of nature is actually very refined. Elephant cells are much slower than mouse cells. The larger the animal, the less active its cells will be. If we classify animals by their metabolism rate and compare that to their mass, this phenomenon is clearly visible.

It's not 100% accurate, but it's a good rule of thumb. Elephants are huge bags of meat filled with billions and billions of little coal machines. So they just keep these machines active enough to operate, and never to be at maximum power. Their entire metabolism is slow. Things are moving at a leisurely pace. Small animals need to do the exact opposite. If you are small, you have a lot of surface, but not a lot of volume. You don't have a lot of cellular machines but you lose the heat produced very quickly. So the tiny mammals have found a pretty extreme solution.

 Meet the Etruscan shrew, the smallest mammal on Earth. this little mole, which is closer to hedgehogs than mice, With a body length of 4 cm, it weighs approximately 1.8 g, which is as heavy as a paper clip. It is a tiny ridiculous living being. It should basically cool down immediately, so its cells work quickly to stay warm. These tiny machines are filled to their maximum capacity. Its heart beats at 1200 beats / min and this beat multiplies by 800 every minute. This creates an extreme need for energy. So this mini rodent has to eat constantly. After only 4 hours without food, she starved to death.

And while an African elephant consumes about 4% of its mass in food each day, Our mini rodent needs 200% of its mass in food every day to survive. Imagine having to eat 2000 Big Macs a day, more than one per minute. It's funny for a moment ... but after not so much. So a cubic centimeter of the mini rodent needs 40 times more food than a cubic centimeter of an elephant. If an elephant cell suddenly becomes as active as that of the rodent, An insane amount of heat would be generated. all the liquids in the elephant would start to boil and then produce a huge explosion of smoking elephant entrails.

 In reality, before the explosion occurs, The proteins responsible for taking care of our cells would probably be denatured and would stop producing heat. But an explosion of entrails is much more fun than melting an elephant into a massive porridge of flesh. Nevertheless, the increase in the speed of metabolism appears everywhere even in places unexpected as a pregnant woman. A baby in his mother’s womb behaves like he’s a part of her, His cells have the same rate of metabolism, the same speed of life as that of his mother's organs. It’s really only part of a large hollow (uterus), rather than an independent individual, until it is no longer (part of the uterus). The precise moment when the child is born is a direct change and all of its interior suddenly works faster. 36 hours after birth, baby cells have the same activity rate as mammals of its size. Babies literally change from organ stage to independent being within hours.

Something in which the big and the small are similar: 

The heartbeat. Mammals tend to have a similar amount of heartbeat in their lives, typically about 1 billion. So while the mini rodent and the elephant are very different, they share a similar number of heartbeats in their lives. Their speed of life is the opposite and somehow always the same.

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